Primary Survey (10 True/False questions with explanations).
CARB is a mnemonic for your priorities when you arrive at a minor incident
FALSE: DR ABC
- D - Dangers
- R - Response
- A - Airway
- B – Breathing
- C - Circulation
When checking for Dangers, you are looking to protect yourself, your colleagues and the patient
TRUE: When an incident occurs, people need to protect themselves first, then the group, and then the patient.
When checking for a Response, if a person is unresponsive, the next action is to put them into the recovery position
FALSE: After checking for a Response, the next action is A- Airway. Open the airway.
After opening the Airway, the next action is to put them into the recovery position.
FALSE: After opening the airway, the next action is B – Breathing. Check for breathing. If the patient is not breathing normally, call 999.
When assessing the level of Response of the patient; new onset of confusion is an emergency
TRUE: There are many causes of confusion. Basically it’s a sign that the brain is not working properly.
When assessing the Airway, new onset of swelling to the lips is an emergency
TRUE: This is a sign of anaphylaxis which can be fatal after just a few minutes
When assessing Breathing, it’s normal for someone at rest to breathe 30 breaths per minute
FALSE: The normal rate for breathing at rest is between 11 and 19 breaths per minute.
- i. 10 breaths or less is too slow. Call 999 and consider Basic Life Support as this could be agonal breathing.
- ii. 20 breaths or more is too fast. Several conditions or injuries cause fast breathing. It could be an emergency.
Breathing is easiest if the patient is in the recovery position
FALSE: Breathing is easiest when the patient is in a sitting position.
When assessing the Circulation, hot clammy skin is a sign of shock.
FALSE. The skin should be it’s normal colour, warm and dry.
- i. Flushed, hot, clammy skin is a sign of infection, or vigorous exercise
- ii. Flushed, hot dry skin is a sign of heat stroke.
- iii. Pale, cold dry skin is a sign of hypothermia.
- iv. Pale, cold clammy skin is a sign of shock.
Shock is an emergency
TRUE: Shock is term used for when the body is struggling to get oxygenated blood to the tissues, especially the vital organs. If the brain and heart do not get enough oxygen then It can quickly lead to death. If the liver and kidneys do not get enough oxygen, then they will stop working and the person will eventually die of multiple organ failure. If you recognise someone in shock call 999.
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